A Bismarck-osztály egy két csatahajóból álló német hajóosztály volt a második világháború idején. The Partisans were resolutely anti-Axis throughout the war, but the Chetniks extensively collaborated with Italian occupation forces garrisoned in the NDH from mid-1941, and especially after the Italian capitulation in September 1943, also with the Germans. The assault also included tasks to capture or destroy the Allied military missions to the Partisans. DFS 230 C, Luftwaffe, Sonderkommando Dora, North Africa 1942 DFS 230 byl nákladní kluzák německé Luftwaffe během druhé světové války. The failure of the German intelligence agencies to share the limited information available on Tito's exact location also contributed to the unsuccessful outcome for the Germans, and this failure to share intelligence was compounded by a lack of contingency planning by the commander of the German airborne force. The detachment was formed on the night of 25/26 May from the 11th Company of the 13th SS Regiment, several pioneers, and a group of specially trained personnel from the Brandenburg Division. [98] The operation was a failure,[94] as Tito, his principal headquarters staff and the Allied military personnel escaped, despite their presence in Drvar at the time of the airborne assault. The party split up and following a creek leading away from the Unac, the small groups climbed the heights to the east and withdrew toward the village of Potoci. At 03:30 on 26 May, the final Partisan attack was launched against the cemetery, breaching the walls in several places, but the paratroopers held on. Adolf Hitler, interessato ad organizzare una grande campagna militare nei Balcani per aiutare l'alleato … [91] After three days of fighting, the combined forces returned to Vis. [48], In the late afternoon, Rybka ordered his forces to withdraw to the area of the cemetery where he formed a defensive perimeter. The operation followed Unternehmen/Operation Rösselsprung, against Convoy PQ 17 in July 1942 to attack convoy PQ 18 the next Arctic convoy of the Western Allies. Since it was unable to find any Soviet ships, Admiral Scheer headed southeast towards Dikson Island in order to attack its military installations. [1], By 19 August, the German fleet rounded Cape Zhelaniya and entered the Kara Sea which was fairly free from ice during the short summer. The operation was launched on 25 May 1944, and was aimed at capturing or killing the Partisan leader Marshal Josip Broz Tito and destroying the headquarters, support facilities and co-located Allied military missions. Some gliders landed significantly off course, including one that landed in front of the Bastasi cave 7 km to the west of Drvar, and several that landed in a locality named Vrtoče near Drvar (not to be confused with Vrtoče between Bihać and Petrovac, which was on the axis of advance of the 92nd Motorised Regiment). Kirchner was attached to the 500th SS Parachute Battalion for the operation. In late November, he held a National Congress at Jajce in a liberated area of the NDH, during which he was designated marshal of Yugoslavia and prime minister. Many youths took up whatever arms they could obtain and commenced fighting the parachutists who were attempting to establish a cordon on the eastern side of the town. He realised that the gliders and transport aircraft would be insufficient for the whole of the 500th SS Parachute Battalion to be delivered to Drvar in one lift, so he came up with a plan involving two waves. [30], In outline, the XV Mountain Corps plan was for a heavy aerial bombardment of Partisan positions in and around Drvar by Luftwaffe aircraft, followed by a parachute and glider assault by the 500th SS Parachute Battalion who had the task of capturing or killing Tito and destroying his headquarters. The ground forces included Home Guard forces of the Independent State of Croatia along with collaborationist Chetniks. [64][65], The forces commanded by the 7th SS Division were organised into northern, central and southern columns. Rösselsprung was a plan by the German Kriegsmarine to intercept an arctic convoy in mid-1942. Mai 1942 wurde die Lützow unter starkem Begleitschutz über Kristiansand und Trondheim … As a further precaution, elements of the 6th Lika Proletarian Division were moved closer to Drvar. Dabei wurde die bisherige Schornsteinkappe durch eine wesentlich höhere ersetzt. Kampfgruppe Panzergrenadier Sturmbattalion entered Ključ at 14:15. [46] Before this attack, Tito and around 20 staff had taken refuge in the cave. By the end of 27 May, the front line had stabilised to the north and south of Ribnik. [35], On 22 May 1944, the 500th SS Parachute Battalion were transported to airfields at Nagy-Betskerek, Zagreb and Banja Luka, dressed in Wehrmacht uniforms for security reasons. [32], The 2nd Panzer Army was monitoring the operation closely. The first wave of 654 troops would conduct the assault at 07:00 and a second wave of 220 troops would follow about five hours later. The British and Soviet military missions to the Partisans were also stationed in villages close to Drvar, as were some United States military officers. A konvoj kíséretének fő erejét a Duke of York és az amerikai Washington csatahajók, a … On hearing the fighting from the direction of Drvar, the students marched west initially armed with only pistols and a few rifles. [28] The ground forces of von Leyser's XV Mountain Corps were significantly reinforced from Army Group F, the 2nd Panzer Army and V SS Mountain Corps reserves. He therefore fired the red signal flare to rally his troops for an assault in that direction. [10][68][69] The southern column was based on the 13th SS Mountain Regiment, reinforced by I Battalion of the 7th SS Mountain Artillery Regiment and some Chetniks. [77], Escorted by elements of the 3rd Krajina Brigade, Tito made his way to Potoci, where he was met by a battalion of the 1st Proletarian Brigade. [73][74] The 105th SS Reconnaissance Battalion column overcame the resistance of local Partisan units and the 1st and 4th Battalions of the 13th Dalmatian Brigade, and by the end of the day had reached Crni Lug, some 20 km from Bosansko Grahovo. It appears that he did not pass on the useful intelligence he had gathered to SS-Hauptsturmführer[d] Kurt Rybka, the commander of the 500th SS Parachute Battalion, who was responsible for planning the critical airborne aspects of the operation. On 30 August, Admiral Scheer returned to Narvik. After putting up resistance, Sibiryakov was sunk in an unequal battle. Both Blue Group and Green Group, consisting of parachute troops that landed in the eastern part of Drvar where most of the population lived, were also engaged in heavy fighting. By mid-September it had to be stopped because of the freezing of the sea surface with thick pack-ice, especially in the Kara Sea, which not being affected by the warmer Atlantic currents freezes much earlier. These reinforcements included two panzer companies, the reconnaissance battalions of the 1st Mountain Division (the 54th Mountain Reconnaissance Battalion) and the 369th (Croatian) Infantry Division, and most of the 7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division Prinz Eugen. Therefore, the Kriegsmarine campaign only affected the Barents Sea and the Kara Sea. Unternehmen „Rösselsprung“ war der Deckname eines präventivkriegstaktischen Unternehmens der deutschen Kriegsmarine gegen den Nachschubkonvoi PQ 17 im Nordmeer im Juli 1942. By 24 May, all preparations for the airborne assault were complete. By 16:00 on 25 May 1944, the 369th Reconnaissance Battalion column had reached the village of Han-Vrbe, some 5 km from Bosansko Grahovo. [2], Following the collapse of Yugoslavia, armed groups appeared, and in the territory of the NDH, while the predominantly Serb resistance to Ustaše rule was initially not strongly aligned with ideology, two principal groups soon established themselves, the communist-led Partisans and the Serb nationalist Chetniks. On 25 August, Admiral Scheer fell upon the Russian icebreaker Sibiryakov (under the command of Captain Anatoli Kacharava) right off the northwest coast of Russky Island at the northern end of the Nordenskiöld Archipelago. [33][43], The 500th SS Parachute Battalion began to parachute and glide onto their objectives at 07:00, most parachutists and glider pilots being able to land relatively close to their targets despite the smoke and dust from the bombing. By 17:20, II Battalion of the 13th SS Mountain Regiment had taken Šipovo, but any further advance was halted by the defences of the 1st Proletarian Brigade. The 92nd Motorised Grenadier Regiment, advancing from Vrtoče, took Bosanski Petrovac without a fight about 08:00. Fighting continued late into 3 June 1944 and resulted in the reinforcement of the island by a further 1,900 German troops. ς; in inglese: Battle of Crete) fu l'invasione da parte della Wehrmacht dell'isola greca di Creta, durante la seconda guerra mondiale.La cosiddetta "Operazione Mercurio" (in tedesco: Unternehmen Merkur) iniziò il 20 maggio 1941 ed ebbe termine il 1º giugno, quando fu completata … [12] Two brigades of the 4th Krajina Division and one brigade from the 39th Krajina Division formed a defensive arc north of Drvar, running from Bihać through Krupa to Sanski Most. At 22:25, Aldrian ordered him to resume the attack, but Willam reported that this was impossible due to loss of contact with his own units. The northern column consisted of Kampfgruppe Panzergrenadier Sturmbattalion and included a company of tanks. The next day, the Arado Ar 196 seaplane on board Admiral Scheer flew to Kravkova Island in the Mona Islands and spotted three groups of Soviet ships, including icebreakers Lenin and Krasin. [24] The aircraft paid particular attention to the villages of Prinavor and Trninić Brijeg where the British military mission and American military personnel were located. The NDH was divided by a German–Italian demarcation line, known as the "Vienna Line"; the Germans occupied the north and northeastern parts of the NDH, and the Italians the south and southwestern sections. [4], During the operation, U-209 (Lt. Captain Brodda) sank, on 17 August, a transport convoy of the Soviet Secret Service (NKVD) composed of cargo ships Nord and Komsomolets and light vessels Sh-III and P-IV west of the Yugorsky Strait. Three battalions of the 3rd Lika Proletarian Brigade of the 6th Lika Proletarian Division approached from the southeast. After the 500th Parachute Battalion had been relieved, the XV Mountain Corps ordered the units in the Drvar area to disperse. As the German intention to encircle the Supreme Command in a small area around Drvar with approaching units, and then destroy it with land forces had become apparent by now, serious reorganisation of Partisan dispositions was required. The rapid advance meant that the 13th Krajina Brigade of the 39th Krajina Division was unable to organise an effective defence. [14] The first of these was the Benesch Special Unit of Section II of the Abwehr (the Wehrmacht intelligence service), some members of which had been involved in identifying Tito's presence in the town of Jajce prior to the German offensive to retake the town. [49] By 21:30, the Germans had consolidated their position in the cemetery, although they were completely surrounded by the Partisans. [75][76], The 1st Regiment of the Brandenburg Division, reinforced by a pioneer company from the 373rd (Croatian) Infantry Division and the Chetnik Dinara Division, attacked along the Knin–Bosansko Grahovo axis, pushed back the local Grahovo–Peulje Partisan Detachment and by the end of the day had reached positions some 5 km beyond Strmica. A preliminary German report estimated their losses at 50,[72] but the 3rd Krajina Brigade estimated German losses at 191 dead and wounded. [64][65], On the morning of 26 May, the German columns advancing from Bihać towards Ključ, and from Livno and Knin towards Bosansko Grahovo, overcame the Partisan units in their paths, and continued their advance facing little resistance. The western column advanced southeast from Bihać, and encountered resistance from the 6th Krajina Brigade of the 4th Krajina Division. 1942 márciusában a Tirpitz az Admiral Scheer cirkáló, a Friedrich Ihn, a Paul Jakobi, ... (Unternehmen Rösselsprung) fedőnevet kapta. As the detachment failed to penetrate into the Partisan territory that night, it tried again the following night. [53] During Operation Rösselsprung, the Germans rendered these tactics ineffective by combining strong and fast motorised columns with adequate pioneer support. It encountered organised resistance from the 2nd Lika Proletarian Brigade of the 6th Lika Proletarian Division. [32][96] The Soviet Foreign Minister, Vyacheslav Molotov, believed that the British had known more about the attack than they claimed, based on the absence of both Maclean and Churchill from Drvar at the time of the attack. Both Allied missions moved their locations as a result. [24], While Rybka was assembling his troops for this attack, surrounding Partisan forces were rushed toward Drvar. L’URSS a aussi lancé beaucoup de coups de main, mais qui ont été oubliés et ne sont donc que marginaux dans cette liste.. Objectifs des opérations The attack was scheduled to begin on the morning of 28 May. [94][95] Late on 6 June, Tito was delivered by the Royal Navy escort destroyer HMS Blackmore to Vis, where he re-established his headquarters and was joined by the Allied missions. There was unexpected resistance from the Partisan 1st Proletarian, 5th and 8th Corps along their axes of advance, and there was very poor communication and coordination between the columns. -27 June 1942: Unternehmen Rösselsprung. [8], Apart from Partisan headquarters and related organisations in and around Drvar, there were between 12,000 and 16,000 Partisans in the area of operations that would be subject to the ground assault by XV Mountain Corps. [44], Panther Group supported by Red Group overcame minimal resistance at the cemetery and Rybka established his headquarters behind the cemetery walls, but there was no sign of Tito or his headquarters. [11], In the wider area of operations were the Partisan 5th Corps commanded by Slavko Rodić and the 8th Corps commanded by Vlado Ćetković. Operation Doppelschlag (Unternehmen/Operation Double Blow) was a plan for a sortie in 1942 during the Second World War into the Arctic Ocean by the Kriegsmarine.The operation followed Unternehmen/Operation Rösselsprung, against Convoy PQ 17 in July 1942 to attack convoy PQ 18 the next Arctic convoy … They split into two groups, a smaller group which crossed the Unac and advanced west along the railway line on the ridge leading toward Tito's cave, and a larger group which collected arms and ammunition from several stray canisters of German equipment dropped by parachute. [34], The plan for the ground forces of von Leyser's XV Mountain Corps was for nine separate but coordinated thrusts toward the Drvar–Bosanski Petrovac area from all directions. This included over one thousand sorties. Operation Rösselsprung (German: Unternehmen Rösselsprung, Knight's move) was a combined airborne and ground assault by the German XV Mountain Corps and collaborationist forces on the Supreme Headquarters of the Yugoslav Partisans located in the Bosnian town of Drvar in the Independent State of Croatia during … Generalfeldmarschall[a] Maximilian von Weichs, the Wehrmacht Commander-in-chief Southeast Europe, admitted a few weeks later that "Tito is our most dangerous enemy. The operation failed due to several factors, including Partisan resistance in the town itself and along the approaches to Drvar. [47], About 11:15, after Rybka's first attack had been defeated, Tito and the small group gathered with him escaped from the cave. General der Infanterie[f] Ernst von Leyser, commander of XV Mountain Corps headquartered at Knin, was responsible for the conduct of the operation. [105], This article is about the German operation aimed at capturing or killing the, Assault on Tito's cave and the Partisan counterattack, Ground force assault and Partisan withdrawal, Chetnik sabotage of Axis communication lines, SS-Brigadeführer und Generalmajor der Waffen-SS, Liberation of Serbia, Albania and Montenegro (1918), Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, June 1941 uprising in eastern Herzegovina, NATO intervention in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albanian–Yugoslav border incident (December 1998), Albania–Yugoslav border incident (April 1999), April 23, 1998 Albanian–Yugoslav border ambush, December 14, 1998 Albanian–Yugoslav border ambush, July 18, 1998 Albanian–Yugoslav border clashes, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Operation_Rösselsprung_(1944)&oldid=1000570530, Military operations of World War II involving Germany, Battles involving the Independent State of Croatia, Battles of World War II involving Chetniks, Aerial operations and battles of World War II involving the United Kingdom, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Serbo-Croatian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, A battalion group of the 373rd (Croatian) Infantry Division was to set out at 05:00 from, The 92nd Motorised Regiment, with the 54th Reconnaissance Battalion (from the, A regimental group of the 7th SS Division was to advance west from the area of Mrkonjić Grad, break through Partisan resistance east of the, The 105th SS Reconnaissance Battalion with an additional panzer company was to advance from, The 369th Reconnaissance Battalion of the, The 1st Regiment of the Brandenburg Division, along with the, This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 18:00. The First Sea Lord … In the evening, the 13th Dalmatian Brigade was ordered to march towards Tičevo and Drvar to reinforce the Partisan forces in that area. Convoy PQ 17, which left Iceland on 27 June and the German fleet departed, in what was called “Operation Knight’s Move”. [83], In the eastern sector, the Partisan line of defence was still holding. During 26 and 27 May, the 7th SS Division continued exerting strong pressure on the 1st Proletarian Division in the upper Sana River Valley, but failed to achieve a decisive breakthrough. [79], About 05:00 on 26 May, a Luftwaffe fighter-bomber formation engaged the Partisan troops withdrawing from Drvar. After a day's fighting, the Germans had captured Trubar, but were unable to overcome the defences of the hills east of the village. About 09:00, the Germans had largely secured Drvar, and the available troops went from house to house, armed with photographs of Tito, brutally questioning the civilians they could find. About 06:35, five squadrons of Luftwaffe bombers, including Junkers Ju 87 Stuka dive bombers, began bombing targets within Drvar and Bosanski Petrovac. Below the cave ran the Unac River, creating an obstacle to movement between the town and the cave, and a rail line ran along the ridgeline above the cave. [10][63] The eastern column started its advance from Bosanska Krupa, aiming to establish contact with the western column at Vrtoče. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich … By the end of the day, the western column had reached Vrtoče, halfway between Bihać and Bosanski Petrovac. 1. FAT216, commanded by Leutnant Zavadil, was also attached to the 500th SS Parachute Battalion, but did not contribute much to the intelligence used to plan the raid. Befehle für Unternehmen "Rösselsprung", 25 Mai - 6 Jun 1944, оригинални немачки документи, Национална архива … About 18:00, Rybka was wounded by a grenade blast and was later evacuated with other casualties in the light aircraft intended to carry away Tito after his capture. [62], The 92nd Motorised Regiment kampfgruppe consisted of two columns, a western column based on the 92nd Motorised Regiment, and an eastern column consisting of the 54th Reconnaissance Battalion and 1st Home Guard Jäger Regiment of the 2nd Croatian Light Infantry Brigade. Admiral Scheer then turned northeast and sped towards the Nordenskiöld Archipelago. [86], On 26 May, due to the rapidly changing situation and communications difficulties, a degree of confusion emerged on both sides. Of this total, the casualties suffered in fighting with the 500th SS Parachute Battalion at Drvar numbered 179 killed, 63 wounded, and 19 missing. Kumm also claimed that six Allied aircraft were shot down during the operation. Out of contact with their corps headquarters, the 4th Krajina Division continued to retain two brigades along the Bihać-Bosanski Petrovac road, even though the 92nd Motorised Regiment had already passed along this route and into their rear. [20] The Germans found forged documents that stated 25 May was Tito's birthday and therefore planned the attack for that day. Despite having only two battalions in the area (the third was facing Kampfgruppe Panzergrenadier Sturmbattalion at Čađavica), the 13th Proletarian Brigade managed to hold off this thrust. The 373rd Division with the newly subordinated 1st Regiment of the Brandenburg Division was ordered to conduct a sweep-and-destroy operation in the area south and southeast of Drvar; this operation was codenamed "Vijenac", and was to take place concurrently with "Operation Grmeč". During this trek, one of the members of the Soviet mission was wounded by shellfire. During the night, the 3rd Lika Proletarian Brigade attacked the cemetery, with the 1st Battalion of the 3rd Brigade of the 9th Dalmatian Division reinforcing the assault. Otto Rolf Skorzeny (Viena, 12 de junio de 1908 - Madrid, 7 de julio de 1975), [1] ingeniero y coronel austríaco de las Waffen-SS, que estuvo al mando de la unidad Friedentahler, fue especialista en operaciones especiales durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial.. Experto en acciones de espionaje y sabotaje, fue apodado por los estadounidenses como «Caracortada» debido a … Rendulic also sent the 105th SS Reconnaissance Battalion to the Livno-Glamoč area which had been left wide open by the defeat of the 369th Reconnaissance Battalion thrust. L'invasione della Jugoslavia (chiamata anche guerra d'aprile soprattutto dalla storiografia jugoslava e identificata con il nome in codice Operazione 25 dall'Asse), fu l'attacco sferrato dalle potenze dell'Asse contro il Regno di Jugoslavia durante la seconda guerra mondiale. Greifer Group and Brecher Group were also unsuccessful as the British and American groups had moved following the aerial reconnaissance on 23 May. [19] Largely due to interservice rivalry and competition,[16] the three organisations did not share the intelligence they gathered, which had a significant effect on the tactical planning and execution of the operation. Near Drvar were elements of the 1st Proletarian Corps commanded by Koča Popović; this corps consisted of the elite 1st Proletarian and 6th Lika Proletarian Divisions, the Corps headquarters being located in the village of Mokronoge, 6 km (3.7 mi) east of Drvar. Other factors included the German intelligence agencies refusing to share the limited information available on Tito's exact location, and the lack of contingency planning by the commander of the German airborne force. [6][7] At the time of Operation Rösselsprung (German: Unternehmen Rösselsprung), the British mission was led by its second-in-command, Lieutenant Colonel Vivian Street. [32] At Potoci, they were met by the staff of the Allied military missions. [21], Operation Rösselsprung was depicted in the 1963 Partisan film Desant na Drvar directed by Fadil Hadžić. [32] The western column of the 92nd Motorised Regiment Kampfgruppe was ordered to help assist the eastern column by detaching a reinforced panzer company from Vrtoče. Juni 1944 gegen die kommunistischen Partisanenverbände Titos in Jugoslawien. Das Unternehmen Rösselsprung war eine deutsche Militärunternehmung vom 25. The Benesch Special Unit was part of the Brandenburg Division, and was staffed by ethnic Germans who spoke local languages. [22], On 23 May 1944, a single German Fieseler Fi 156 reconnaissance aircraft flew several parallel runs up and down the Una valley over Drvar at around 600 metres (2,000 ft);[23] activity consistent with conducting aerial photography. Drvar reverted to Partisan control within a few weeks of the operation. [24], The second wave of parachute troops was dropped in two groups to the west of the cemetery at about midday. Działania przeciw konwojom do Archangielska i Murmańska zostały nazwane operacją Ruch Konia Szachowego (Unternehmen Rösselsprung). The 2nd Lika Proletarian Brigade requested assistance from the 1st Lika Proletarian Shock Brigade, but divisional headquarters ordered it to send reinforcements to Drvar instead. It is not entirely clear what the aim for this operation was, though there are indications it was related to a failed attempt to lay telegraph lines. Collecting the remainder, Rybka mounted a second attack, but the pressure on his flanks was too heavy, and the assault again failed. [90], Tito, his staff and his escort continued toward Kupres, travelling on foot and horseback, as well as on the wagons of a narrow-gauge logging railway. Operation Rösselsprung (German: Unternehmen Rösselsprung, Knight's move) was a combined airborne and ground assault by the German XV Mountain Corps and collaborationist forces on the Supreme Headquarters of the Yugoslav Partisans located in the Bosnian town of Drvar in the Independent State of Croatia during World War II.The operation was launched on … Roughly at the same time, his Partisan counterpart in Drvar, Milan Šijan, the commander of the 3rd Lika Proletarian Brigade, was also wounded by German machine gun fire. Tito, his principal headquarters staff and the Allied military personnel escaped, despite their presence in Drvar at the time of the airborne assault. [1][5], Operation Wunderland was only moderately successful. The drop zone was within fields of fire of the Partisans to the west of Drvar, and the paratroops suffered many casualties during the drop. The Germans had to rely on special forces and improved tactics.

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